Kuasa Autonomi di Universiti Awam: Suatu Pandangan

Autonomi bermaksud pemerintahan (pentadbiran, pengurusan) sendiri, hak mengurus pemerintahan(pentadbiran dsb) sendiri (tanpa penguasaan atau pengendalian oleh pihak lain)(Kamus Dewan, Edisi Keempat, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 2005). Begitu juga apabila melibatkan universiti awam (‘UA’) di Malaysia. Kuasa autonomi UA bermaksud kuasa pemerintahan sendiri yang diberikan oleh Kerajaan Pusat melalui Kementerian Pendidikan Tinggi (‘KPT’) adalah bertujuan untuk membolehkan UA bergerak dengan lebih bebas dan cepat melaksanakan tanggungjawabnya, berdaya saing dan inovatif, proaktif dan berkaliber berdasarkan kepada peruntukan yang termaktub di dalam Akta Universiti dan Kolej 1971 (Akta 30)(AUKU), Akta Badan Berkanun (Disiplin and Surcaj) 2000(Akta 605), Akta Badan Berkanun (Akaun dan Laporan Tahunan) 1980 (Akta 240) dan Perlembagaan Universiti. Di samping itu, melalui pendekatan ini, bebanan kerajaan pusat dapat dikurangkan khususnya kewangan dan tanggungjawab pembangunan dan tadbir urus. Namun begitu, kuasa autonomi atau penuruan kuasa yang dinyatakan dalam AUKU dan Perlembagaan UA itu masih belum sepenuhnya diberikan kepada UA kerana kekangan yang dihadapi oleh UA masing-masing melibatkan soal urus tadbir, kewangan, sumber manusia, pengurusan akademik dan pengambilan pelajar. Hanya UA yang telah terbukti berupaya untuk melaksanakan sebahagian besar kuasa autonomi yang dipersetujui oleh Kerajaan Pusat (seperti KPT, Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam (JPA), Kementerian Kewangan (MOF), Jabatan Kerjaraya (JKR) dan Unit Pemodenan Tadbiran dan Pengurusan Malaysia (MAMPU)) bertunjangkan kepada peruntukan AUKU, Perlembagaan UA dan dasar kerajaan pusat telah diberikan mandat untuk berautonomi. Antara manfaat kepada kerajaan pusat adalah UA dapat memacu pembangunannya, khususnya dalam memartabatkan UA di persada antarabangsa, pemerolehan harta dan penjanaan sumber kewangan, menjalankan perniagaan, pembelian peralatan dan perkhidmatan, pembangunan fizikal UA, perjawatan dan naik pangkat dan pemerolehan tenaga pengajar akademik yang berkaliber/berkualiti dan dasar pemilihan pelajar secara lebih baik tanpa perlu tertakluk kepada pengawalan ketat oleh kerajaan pusat. Kendatipun begitu, kerajaan pusat masih lagi bertanggungjawab dalam memantau kuasa autonomi yang dimiliki oleh UA. Ini termasuk kewajipan UA untuk memakai semua pekeliling perbendaharaan dalam hal pengurusan kewangan dalaman, pemakaian semua pekeliling perkhidmatan awam. Namun begitu, ruang lingkup kuasa autonomi akan diperluaskan lagi berdasarkan keperluan dan kemampuan UA tersebut melalui proses rundingan. Dengan perkataan lain, kuasa autonomi dan penurunan kuasa yang dinikmati oleh UA ini masih tertakluk juga kepada amalan kebertanggungjawaban, ketelusan, akauntabiliti dan nilai serta kualiti yang dibelanjakan dalam semua urusan yang ditetapkan oleh Kerajaan Pusat.

Pada pandangan penulis, kuasa autonomi ini adalah kuasa yang telah wujud secara semula jadi berdasarkan kepada peruntukan AUKU dan Perlembagaan UA. Namun disebabkan oleh kekangan-kekangan yang dihadapi oleh UA, kuasa itu masih belum diberikan sepenuhnya dilaksanakan oleh Menteri Pendidikan Tinggi berdasarkan kepada peruntukan di dalam AUKU dan Akta Badan Berkanun kepada semua UA. AUKU dan Perlembagaan Universiti menyatakan semua tanggungjawab dan had kuasa setiap UA dan Pihak Berkuasanya. Kuasa yang sebenar adalah terletak kepada Lembaga Pengarah Universiti (LPU), Senat dan Pihak Berkuasa Universiti berlandaskan kepada peruntukan ditetapkan di bawah AUKU dan Perlembagaan UA.

Sementara itu pihak Kementerian Pendidikan Tinggi adalah berkuasa penuh ke atas UA. Kuasanya juga dinyatakan di dalam AUKU. KPT boleh campurtangan ke atas pentadbiran UA, sekiranya perlu, berdasarkan peruntukan yang dinyatakan di bawah AUKU dan Perlembagaan UA.

Di sebalik kuasa autonomi yang diberikan, berikut adalah beberapa berapa isu yang timbul yang perlu difikirkan bersama, pada pandangan penulis, bagi memberi makna yang sepatutnya kepada kuasa autonomi UA itu sendiri demi kemanfaatan kerajaan pusat, UA dan staf UA. Isu-isu itu adalah pada hemat penulis, adalah:

  • Pekeliling-pekeliling kerajaan pusat diguna pakai tanpa melihat kepada kesesuaian UA dan hal domestik UA itu sendiri dan tanpa dirujuk kepada orang yang berkepentingan/pemegang taruh UA, contohnya pekeliling-pekeliling tidak dibincangkan terlebih dahulu bersama pemegang taruh seperti staf akademik dan staf pentadbiran;
  • Keupayaan UA untuk menambah peruntukan kewangan bagi mengurus UA melalui peningkatan yuran pengajian. Contohnya melalui kenaikan yuran untuk program sarjana muda perlu mendapatkan kelulusan kerajaan pusat. Apa yang dimaklumkan, yuran pengajian peringkat pasca siswazah boleh dinaikkan khususnya kepada pelajar luar Negara. Namun begitu, kesannya ini boleh menyebabkan pelajar luar Negara tidak berminat untuk melanjutkan pengajian di Malaysia kerana kos pengajian meningkat. Dengan itu UA perlu bijaksana dalam menangani isu ini iaitu menambah bilangan pelajar antarabangsa, menaikkan yuran pengajian tetapi tidak membebankan pelajar antarabangsa serta memastikan kualiti pendidikan tinggi di UA terus meningkat khususnya melalui sistem ranking dunia QS dan mengadakan kerjasama akademik dan profesional dengan badan-badan profesional dan universiti-universiti tersohor di luar Negara;
  • Sekiranya UA berupaya untuk menjana peruntukan kewangannya tersendiri sepenuhnya sehingga boleh berdikari tanpa memerlukan sumber kewangan kerajaan pusat, apakah masih perlu tertakluk kepada arahan KPT dan kerajaan pusat sebagaimana yang telah ditetapkan di dalam AUKU?;
  • Bagaimana pula dengan skim perkhidmatan di UA sekiranya AU itu boleh berdiri sendiri/separa boleh berdiri sendiri? Adakah masih perlu tertakluk kepada skim perkhidmatan Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam (JPA)? Atau adakah UA itu boleh mempunyai skim perkhidmatan dan tangga gaji sendiri atau perlu UA-UA mempunyai Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatannya sendiri?;
  • Antara kesan-kesan sampingan daripada pelaksanaan kuasa autonomi ini adalah pengurangan kawalan dan pemantauan kerajaan pusat ke atas UA berkenaan yang menggugat keutuhan tadbir urus UA berkenaan. Sebagai contohnya ketirisan dalam melaksanakan tatacara pengurusan tatatertib staf dan kenaikan pangkat staf; dan,
  • Isu LPU yang kurang dinamik, proaktif, kreatif and inovatif dalam menyediakan dasar dan hala tuju UA termasuk dalam menyediakan pelan strategik unversiti dan soal hal kebajikan staf UA. Antara kesannya adalah kebajikan pekerja UA terabai contohnya dalam soal kenaikan pangkat dan kebajikan. Hak-hak pekerja UA juga tertakluk kepada arahan LPU dan tidak menikmati keistimewaan seperti yang diperoleh oleh penjawat perkhidmatan awam melalui Perintah-perintah Am (General Orders) (Zakiah Ishak lwn Majlis Daerah Hulu Selangor [2005] 4 CLJ 77; [2005] 6 MLJ 517 dan Dr Chandra Muzaffar lwn. Universiti Malaya [2002] 5 MLJ 369).

Pada pandangan penulis dalam melaksanakan UA berautonomi ini, adalah perlu peruntukan-peruntukan khusus mengenai autonomi di dalam AUKU dipinda bagi memberi kejelasan dan mengukuhkan kerangka dan kelicinan pelaksanaan autonomi UA secara adil.

Peruntukan-peruntukan baharu itu perlu memberi ruang, ‘engagement’ dan platform yang secukupnya kepada pemegang taruh UA contohnya staf akademik dalam membahas, menjana dan membincangkan idea dan pendekatan baharu melalui konsep ‘bottom up’ di setiap peringkat pembuat dasar dan Pihak Berkuasa UA dalam mewujudkan dasar-dasar yang mesra UA dan memberi keuntungan kepada kerajaan, UA dan pemegang taruh UA seperti staf akademik dan sokongan.

Antara pendekatan lain adalah perlunya perbincangan pelbagai hala dan ‘engagement’ berterusan antara UA, KPT dan persastuan staf akademik bagi merealisasikan idealisme autonomi UA yang diidam-idamkan di Malaysia.

Melalui cara ini, suasana ‘situasi menang-menang’ akan dapat dicapai sekali gus memberi manfaat besar kepada Negara, UA dan staf UA.

Advertisements

Scheme of Arrangement (SOA) in the Rehabilitation of Abandoned Housing Projects: A Case Study of Malaysia

Md Dahlan, Nuarrual Hilal (2013) Scheme of arrangement (SOA) in the rehabilitation of abandoned housing projects: A case study Of Malaysia. Asian Studies International Journal, 1 (1). pp. 36-53. ISSN 2279-1949

lestari6

Abstract

If a company is insolvent and is unable to pay its debts, it may be subject to a scheme of arrangement (SOA) on the application of the creditors or members or the liquidator or the company itself. The usual purpose of SOA is for the SOA manager to take over the affairs and business of a debtor insolvent company in order to settle off the debts of the creditors and once all the debts are fully paid, the control of the debtor insolvent company will be handed over back to the previous management. The SOA manager is armed with certain powers and duties in the SOA administration. The benefit of obtaining SOA is to give some time to the SOA manager to run the debtor insolvent company in order to settle its debts. Moratorium power will be given to SOA Manager against any actions and proceedings by the creditors in the course of the SOA administration. This moratorium power is to allow the SOA manager to exercise the SOA effectively without any interference by the creditors and the members of the debtor insolvent company. In respect of insolvent housing developer company which becomes subject to SOA, similar duties are carried out by the appointed SOA manager, viz to take over the affairs of the company, to settle off all the debts of the creditors, to carry on any project and business left by the company if this is expedient in accordance with the law and the wish of the creditors or the members. Once all these have been dispensed with, the affairs and management of the company will be handed back to the previous management.

Keywords: Scheme of Arrangement (SOA); Insolvency Administration; Rehabilitation; Abandoned Housing Projects; Grievances of Purchaser.

Doctrine of laches and its application in actions founded on contract in Malaysia

Md Dahlan, Nuarrual Hilal (2002) Doctrine of laches and its application in actions founded on contract in Malaysia. Malayan Law Journal, 2 (2002). Ixxx-xcvi. ISSN 0025-1283

lestari21

In a remedial contractual action, the limitation period plays an important part before one commences an action against the defaulting party to a contract. The provision of a limitation period to enforce a contract is found in section 6 of the Limitation Act 1953 (‘the Act’). By virtue of this provision, one has to commence remedial action either in the form of specific performance or damages within six years from the date of accrual of the cause of action, failing which his action is deemed to have failed and shall be struck out by the court. Apart from this, at common law and in statutory footing under the Malaysian Limitation Act 1953 (Act 254), there is another equitable doctrine that could affect the plaintiffs action.This doctrine is called the doctrine of laches.In short, this doctrine states that if the plaintiff commences an action with unreasonable delay (laches) after the accrual of the cause of action, his action will be defeated.

Keywords: Doctrine of Laches; Contract; Limitation Period; Equity.

Konvensyen Akademik Kebangsaan Universiti Awam Malaysia 2016 (KAKUAM2016)

poster kakuam

A national convention assembling all academics in Malaysian public universities to discuss issues related to the academic welfare and higher education in Malaysia.

Working papers that will be delivered and discussed by invited distinguished speakers and experienced panelists:

  1. Peranan, Sumbangan Pensyarah,  dan Perkhidmatan Pensyarah Universiti Awam  dalam Perkhidmatan Awam di Malaysia: Dasar, Cita-cita dan Cabaran;
  2. Dasar, Pelaksanaan & Cabaran Autonomi Universiti Awam;
  3. Gerakan Persatuan  Staf Akademik di Universiti Awam, Cabaran dan Realiti;
  4. Amalan Semasa dan Cabaran dalam Bidang Pendidikan Tinggi – Melahirkan Cendikiawan Bertaraf Dunia & Ranking Dunia;
  5. Amalan Semasa dan Cabaran dalam Bidang Pendidikan Tinggi – Tadbir Urus; and,
  6. Kelestarian Kepimpinan Universiti Awam: Cita-cita, Dasar, Pelaksanaan dan Cabaran.

 

Shariah and legal issues in house buying in Malaysia: The legality of Bay’Bithaman-Al-Ajil(‘BBA’) with special reference to abandoned housing projects

Gambar 1

Md Dahlan, Nuarrual Hilal and Syed Abdul Kader, Sharifah Zubaidah (2011) Shariah and legal issues in house buying in Malaysia: The legality of Bay’ Bithaman al-Ajil(‘BBA’) with special reference to abandoned housing projects. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities , 19 (2). pp. 349-361. ISSN 0128-7702

Abstract

The primary duties of Islamic banks and financial institutions in Malaysia are to carry out Islamic banking and financial activities and to offer products that are in accordance with the Islamic teachings. These products are subject to the scrutiny and approval of Bank Negara’s Shariah Advisory Council (SAC) and the internal Shariah Advisory Bodies (SAB) or the Shariah Committees of the respective financial institutions.Despite having been in existence for more than 25 years, in the authors’ view, it is still questionable whether or not the Islamic banks and financial institutions in Malaysia have been satisfactorily carrying out these duties. One area worth examining is the transaction involving house buying, particularly the one that falls under the purview of the Housing Development (Control and Licensing) Act 1966 (Act 118) and transactions involving houses pending completion. This paper examines this area of transaction and the loan agreement, affected via Bay’ Bithaman al-Ajil (BBA), provided by Islamic banking and financial institutions in Malaysia.The purpose is to see to what extent the sale and purchase agreement and the loan agreement have complied with the requirements of the Islamic Law in protecting stakeholders and to provide practical suggestions to improve the existing practice.The paper concludes that the current practice of the BBA contradicts with the teachings of Islam and should therefore be modified and revamped until it is fully able to protect the interests of the purchasers/borrowers.

Keywords: Bay’ Bithaman al-Ajil, Gharar al-Fahish, Islamic Banking Law, abandoned housing projects, Malaysia

Comparative legal analysis between the rehabilitations of the failed residential projects of the liquidated housing developer companies in Malaysia and the Republic of Singapore

Md Dahlan, Nuarrual Hilal (2012) Comparative legal analysis between the rehabilitations of the failed residential projects of the liquidated housing developer companies in Malaysia and the Republic of Singapore. Journal for Global Business Advancement, 5 (2). pp. 126-149. ISSN 1746-966X

Gambar 2

Abstract

This paper discusses the liquidation law and practice in the rehabilitation of failed residential projects in Malaysia of the liquidated housing developer companies in comparison with the position in the Republic of Singapore.This paper is the fruit of a legal case studies research funded by the Ministry of High Education Malaysia (MOHE) through the FRGS Grant. The objective of this paper is to highlight the problems in the current liquidation laws applicable in Malaysia and Singapore in the face of the failed residential projects’ problems and the grievances of the purchasers. This paper suggests that there are lacunae in the current law of liquidation and insolvency in Malaysia and Singapore in dealing with the rehabilitation of failed residential projects for protecting the rights of the aggrieved purchasers. This paper also proposes solutions for the lacunae and the problems.

Keywords: liquidation law issues; failed residential projects; rehabilitation; liquidation of housing developer companies; Malaysia; Republic of Singapore.

Issues of Khiyar (option) in housing agreements in Peninsular Malaysia

lestari30Md Dahlan, Nuarrual Hilal (2014) Issues of Khiyar (option) in housing agreements in Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Law Journal, 1. pp. 1-21. ISSN 0025-1283

Abstract

It is well entrenched in lslamic Law that khiyar is an inherent right of the contracting parties in a contract.This right provides the contracting parties with a right of option to void the contract they entered into if the subject matter of the contract does not comply with the specifications, terms and conditions of the contract.In Peninsular Malaysia, all house purchasers who wish to buy houses built by the licensed housing developers who are subject to the Housing Development (Control and Licensing) Act 1966 (Act 118) and subject to the control of the Ministry of Housing and Local Government (MHLG) are required to use the prescribed housing statutory standard sale and purchase agreements as contained in Schedules G, H, I and J (‘the said agreements’). However after close scrutiny over the said agreements, there is no term of khiyar provided.  Thus, due to the absence of term of khiyar in the said agreements, the said agreements, it is submitted, are null and void under lslamic Law. Likewise, it follows that due to this nullity, the subsequent housing transactions involving loan agreements, effected through Bai’ Bithaman al-Ajil (BBA), Musharakah Mutanaqisah, ljarah Thamma al-Bay’ and Istisna’ used by lslamic banks, may also be affected and are void.This academic paper is a fruit of a completed research undertaken by the author.Its objective is to discuss and explore the issues of khiyar in the said agreements, particularly when the housing projects are abandoned.The author used qualitative legal research methodology to unravel the issues of khiyar in the said agreements.This paper contends that due to the absence of khiyar in the said agreements, the said agreements have not complied with the requirements under lslamic law and could cause the housing transactions and the subsequent loan transactions entered into by the purchasers/borrower, developers and lslamic banks, void too.This paper also provides certain proposals to improve the current terms and conditions in the said agreements in order to render them harmonious with the spirit and intent of lslamic law.

Keywords: khiyar; housing statutory standard sale and purchase agreements; abandoned housing projects in Peninsular Malaysia; housing law in Peninsular Malaysia; lslamic law.

Issues in the statutory housing sale agreements in Peninsular Malaysia: A case study of abandoned housing projects

Md Dahlan, Nuarrual Hilal (2015) Issues in the statutory housing sale agreements in Peninsular Malaysia: A case study of abandoned housing projects. The Law Review. pp. 377-397. ISSN 1985-0891

Abstract

The use of statutory housing sale agreements (“the said agreements”) as enshrined in the Housing Development (Control and Licensing) Regulations 1989 is mandatory for all housing developers in Peninsular Malaysia.The use of the said agreements is to ensure protection to house purchasers against irresponsible housing developers.However, in practice, it is evident that the terms of the said agreements are inadequate to provide purchasers with the required protection particularly in abandoned housing projects. This paper aims to highlight this issue.This paper is also the fruit of a research exercise using legal research and qualitative case study methodologies. It finds that there are certain lacunae in the terms of the said agreements that have caused the said agreements’ inability to face the problems of abandoned housing projects to the detriment of the house purchasers’ rights.Further, there are certain housing transaction practices that have caused grievances to the house purchasers. The author provides, at the ending part of this paper, some proposals to overcome the highlighted problems.This is a part of the initiatives to strengthen the said agreements to become more protective to house purchasers.

Keywords: Statutory housing sale agreement, issues, abandoned housing projects, Peninsular Malaysia, grievances to purchasers.

Issues in the Malaysian statutory housing agreements (Schedules G, H, I and J): “Defect Liability Period”

Agreement

Md Dahlan, Nuarrual Hilal (2015) Issues in the Malaysian statutory housing agreements (Schedules G, H, I and J): “Defect Liability Period”. The Law Review (2). pp. 254-273. ISSN 1985-0891

Abstract

Defect liability period clause is provided in the statutory housing agreements-Schedules G, H, I and J (“the said agreements”). However, this liability may not be provided if the housing project is abandoned. Thus, in the event of housing abandonment, the purchasers may not be able to get protection under defect liability period clause. Due to this lacuna, the rights of purchasers can be undermined. This paper aims to highlight this issue-defect liability period in the said agreements, particularly involving abandoned housing projects in Malaysia. This research paper used a pure legal research methodology.This paper finds that due to the absence of specific clause of defect liability period in the said agreements in the event of housing abandonment, the rights of the purchasers will be denied and they will suffer irreparable damage. At the ending part of this paper, the author suggests some recommendations to settle the issues identified.

Keywords: Abandoned Housing Projects in Malaysia, Defect Liability Period, Statutory Housing Agreements, Legal Issues, Purchasers’ Grievances, Recommendations.

Comparative legal analysis on the viability of judicial management on insolvent residential developer companies in Malaysia, The Republic of Singapore and The United Kingdom

Md Dahlan, Nuarrual Hilal (2015) Comparative legal analysis on the the viability of judical management on insolvent residential developer companies in Malaysia, The Republic of Singapore and The United Kingdom. Malayan Law Journal, 2 (20). pp. 1-15. ISSN 0025-1283

Abstract

Recently, the corporate law reform committee (‘CLRC’) operating under the companies commission of Malaysia (‘CCM’) has recommended that judicial management (‘JM’) be introduced in Malaysia as one of the ways to deal with corporate insolvency matters. The application for appointment of judicial manager may be made by the company itself, the directors or the creditors. The judicial manager is armed with a moratorium power against any action taken which may be commenced by the creditors and others to ensure that he can effectively carry out his duty. The moratorium power will enable him to prepare and implement the approved restructuring plan for the benefits of the insolvent company and its creditors.This paper aims to elaborate the CLRC’s recommendations on JM and study its strengths and weaknesses particularly in dealing with the problems of failed residential projects of insolvent residential developer companies. This paper is also a result of research conducted through a comparative legal research methodology. Two jurisdictions, viz the Republic of Singapore and the United Kingdom have been selected for comparative analysis over their respective laws and practices on JM. Further, this comparative study is to investigate, identify and find the respective jurisdictions’ strengths and weaknesses on JM, which Malaysia can learn from particularly in the face of the failed residential projects’ problems. This paper finds that the recommendation by the CLRC for the appointment of judicial manager is commendable. Nonetheless, it is submitted that, in the insolvency management of insolvent residential developer companies with failed residential projects, the judicial manager who is armed with certain statutory and legal powers still cannot fully provide comprehensive solution in dealing with the rehabilitation of failed residential projects and cater to the rights of the aggrieved purchasers. Equally, this paper suggests certain proposals to improve the corporate rehabilitation mechanism carried out by the judicial manager in insolvency Administration involving insolvent residential developer companies whose residential projects failed.In the course of carrying the JM, this paper also suggests certain ideas on how to protect the rights and interests of the aggrieved purchasers in failed residential projects.

Keywords: Failed Residential Projects; Judicial Management (‘JM’); Rights of Aggrieved Purchasers; Rehabilitation; Malaysia.